In her February announcement of the Union Budget for 2022, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman emphasised the necessity of electric mobility and moving to sustainable and clean solutions. In the meantime, a number of states established electric vehicle laws to accelerate the adoption of EVs in India, with a focus on the charging infrastructure.
According to available statistics, the introduction of many legislations and the central government's constant push for the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) have resulted in favourable outcomes, increasing EV market penetration in India.
As of July 14, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and Karnataka are the top three states in terms of EV usage.
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, or NEMMP, was started by the government in 2013. It is a plan for speeding up the use of electric cars (EVs) in the country and making these cars in the country to ensure fuel security.
The NEMMP was designed as a roadmap for all government e-mobility programs, programmes, policies, and other actions. In 2020, the strategy went into force.
The Ministry of Heavy Industries launched the FAME India Scheme (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in India Scheme) in 2015 to promote e-mobility in the country as part of the NEMMP.
During a recent parliamentary session, the Minister of State for Heavy Industries, Krishan Pal Gurjar, stated, "Currently, Phase-II of the FAME India Scheme is being implemented for a period of five years beginning on April 1, 2019, with a total budgetary support of Rs 10 billion."
Under the FAME program, infrastructure providers and EV manufacturers get subsidies as an incentive to increase the production of EVs and the construction of an e-mobility infrastructure. The first phase began in 2015 and concluded in March 2019, with the second beginning in April 2019.
However, the government has extended the FAME II program by two years; it will now be in effect until March 31, 2024.
In addition, the Centre has approved the Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme 'National Programme on Advanced Chemistry Cell (ACC) Battery Storage' with a budgetary outlay of Rs 18,100 crore for achieving a manufacturing capacity of 50 GWh of ACC for enhancing India's manufacturing capabilities, generating higher domestic value addition, and ensuring that the revised cost of battery manufacture in India remains globally competitive.
According to MoS Gurjar, EVs are covered under the PLI plan for automobiles and auto components, which was authorized last September with a budgetary outlay of Rs 25,938 crore for a period of five years.
The minister also informed the legislature that the GST on EVs has been decreased from 12% to 5%, while the GST on EV chargers and charging stations has been reduced from 18% to 5%.
STATES’ BID TO SUPPORT THE EV ECOSYSTEM
People are already choosing EVs, but the infrastructure is still required. It is anticipated that national and state EV policies would make it possible and support research, charging infrastructure, and skill development methods. There are currently more than 13,00,000 EVs on the highways of India, although non-electric vehicles are still the majority.
Although the transition from gasoline and diesel vehicles to e-mobility is believed to be progressing, the absence of charging infrastructure has been a concern among potential EV customers.
However, numerous state government initiatives are attempting to address this issue, and the federal government is also providing the necessary support to expand the adoption of electric vehicles.
Under the Electric Mobility Policy 2018-23, the government has established incentives for manufacturing, charging infrastructure, demand creation, and research to ensure the viability of projects in these areas.
By 2024, the state government plans to have 10 million electric vehicles across all vehicle categories and 1,000,000 slow and rapid charging stations.
Notably, the Ministry of Heavy Industries has authorized 266 EV charging stations for the state as of July of this year.
This EV policy was issued in July of 2017 and will be in place for the next five years, until 2026. During this period, the policy focuses on developing a charging infrastructure to facilitate the state's rapid adoption of electric vehicles.
According to data from the federal government, Assam has over 64,700 EVs on the road as of July 2022.
The Ministry of Heavy Industries has authorized 64 charging stations along the Mangaldai-Wakro route, which connects Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
The validity of the "Draft EV Policy 2022" is five years. The objective of this policy is to support the adoption of zero-emission mobility in order to achieve carbon neutrality in Chandigarh by 2030.
In addition, it seeks to develop a vast network of charging stations by facilitating the availability of power supply and related processes and by utilizing renewable energy sources for charging electric vehicles.
As of July 14, according to government data, UT has 2,812 EVs on the road.
In addition, the Ministry of Heavy Industries has sanctioned 48 charging stations under the Phase I FAME India Scheme and 70 charging stations under the FAME Phase II Scheme. As of July 1, specifically for the Delhi-Chandigarh route, the number is 24.
Goa's EV Concessional Charging Infrastructure Policy was unveiled, promising assistance for the construction and operation of EV charging infrastructure.
Goa has 3,870 EVs on the road as of July 14, according to information provided during a recent parliamentary session.
Notable is that the Ministry of Heavy Industries has authorized 30 charging stations for Goa under FAME Phase I as of July 1.
The EV Policy 2021 aims to have 2 lakh EVs on the roads within the next four years.
During the term of this EV policy, the State Government will exempt EV charging stations from paying 100 percent electricity duty and will allow charging stations to be installed at gas stations. The state currently has over 45,000 EVs on the road.
The Ministry of Heavy Industries has already approved 278 charging stations under FAME Phase II. Notable is the fact that for the Ahmadabad–Vadodara expressway, the ministry has approved ten charging stations.
The government is required by its EV and Energy Storage Policies to investigate possible long-term lease locations for EV charging stations and battery swapping infrastructure. In accordance with this policy, incentives will be provided for the installation of the initial 100 fast-charging stations.
According to data from the central government, there were 1,20,532 EVs on the roads in Karnataka as of July.
The government has sanctioned 14 and 30 charging stations for the Bengaluru-Mysore and Bengaluru-Chennai Express Highways.
One of the goals of Maharashtra's EV policy 2021 is to develop at least one Gigafactory for the production of ACC batteries in the state.
Additional aspects of the concept include demand incentives for public and semi-public charging stations.
According to the data, the state has 1,16,646 EVs on the road as of July.
In addition, under FAME Phase II, the Ministry of Heavy Industries has granted Maharashtra 317 EV charging stations.
Notably, the ministry has approved 10 charging stations for the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, while 124, 60, 70, and 100 have been approved for the Mumbai-Delhi, Mumbai-Panaji, Mumbai-Nagpur, and Mumbai-Bangalore roads, respectively.
Under its 2019 EV Policy, the government intends to offer incentives and exemptions to stimulate investment in electric vehicle (EV) production, EV charging infrastructure manufacturing, and equipment manufacturing enterprises.
According to data from the central government, there are already 82,051 EVs on the roads in Tamil Nadu.
The Ministry of Heavy Industries has authorized 281 charging stations for the state as part of FAME Phase II.
In particular, the ministry has approved 120, 74, 62, and 114 charge stations for the Chennai-Bhubaneswar, Chennai-Trivandrum, Chennai-Ballary, and Chennai-Nagpur roads, respectively.
The Telangana EV and ESS Policy have been in effect for ten years.
Through this policy, the state government hopes to establish Telangana as a significant hub for the EV and ESS sectors, attracting $4 billion in investments and creating jobs by 2030 through the use of EVs in shared mobility, the development of charging infrastructure, and EV and ESS manufacturing activities.
The Heavy Industries Ministry has sanctioned 57 charging stations for the state under FAME Phase I, and 138 charging stations under FAME Phase II as of this time.
By 2024, the EV Policy of Uttar Pradesh wants to install roughly 2 million slow and fast charging stations.
This state has the biggest number of electric vehicles on the road, with 3,37,180 as of July of this year.
Under FAME Phase I, the Ministry of Heavy Industries has approved 16 charging stations for the state, whereas under FAME Phase II, the number is 207.
So far, 60 charging stations have been approved for the Delhi-Agra-Yamuna and Agra-Lucknow expressways, while 80 and 44 stations have been approved for the Agra-Nagpur and Meerut-Gangotri Dham routes, respectively.
Under the EV Policy 2020, all residential and commercial building owners will be encouraged to construct Private Charging Points (PCPs). According to the government, these charging stations will provide access to electric vehicle charging for residents of group housing societies and multi-story apartment complexes.
According to the government, the strategy has the potential to generate a substantial number of jobs, including positions for charging station operators. There are currently 1,56,393 EVs on the roads in Delhi.
The Ministry of Heavy Industries has authorized 94 and 72 EV charging stations under FAME Phases I and II. Delhi–Chandigarh and Delhi–Jaipur–Agra feature 24 and 31 charging stations, respectively.
On the Delhi–Srinagar and Delhi–Kolkata motorways, the ministry has approved 80 and 160 charging stations, respectively.